Karate or karate-do is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands from indigenous fighting methods and Chinese kenpō.It is primarily a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes and open-handed techniques such as knife-hands and ridge-hands. Grappling, locks, restraints, throws, and vital point strikes are taught in some styles.
Shotokan (松濤館流) is a style of karate, developed from various martial arts by Gichin Funakoshi (1868–1957) and his son Gigo (Yoshitaka) Funakoshi (1906–1945). Gichin was one of several Okinawan masters who brought karate to mainland Japan during the 1910s and 1920s.
Gichin Funakoshi laid out the Twenty Precepts of Karate which form the foundations of the art. Within these twenty principles, based heavily on Bushido and Zen, lies the philosophy of Shotokan. The principles allude to notions of humility, respect, compassion, patience, and both an inward and outward calmness. It was Funakoshi’s belief that through karate practice and observation of these 20 principles, the karateka would improve their person.
“The ultimate aim of Karate lies not in victory or defeat, but in the perfection of the character of the participant.”